Tooth extraction is commonly recommended in cases where the tooth is extensively damaged due to decay or trauma beyond repair, or if it is infected and the patient is not a candidate for endodontic (root canal) treatment. It is also frequently prescribed when the teeth of one or both dental arches are severely crowded, and a discrepancy is seen between the size of the teeth and space required.
Surgical extraction also known as "open extraction", is a dental procedure used to completely remove a tooth surgically. Even if the tooth is partially visible in the mouth, surgical techniques may be required for its removal. This can involve sectioning the tooth into multiple pieces, and it may involve making a soft tissue incision. Surgical extraction is commonly used for impacted wisdom teeth (third molars).